Community
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2018

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Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2018

What does this measure?

The number of people incarcerated in local jails by race/ethnicity, expressed as a rate per 10,000 residents of that race/ethnicity.

Why is this important?

Incarceration serves to remove offenders from a community, but also creates hardships on families, including the loss of an income or a caregiver, in addition to long-term effects on mental health for all involved. After incarceration, people often encounter challenges in obtaining meaningful employment, leading to reductions in long-term productivity, recidivism and widespread effects on a community's social, health and educational systems. Disparities in this rate by race or ethnicity can highlight structural differences in how communities are affected and treated by the public safety and criminal justice system.

How is our region performing?

In 2018, incarceration rates in the Mid-Hudson Valley region for most racial groups were slightly above the state (excluding NYC) rates, with the highest amongst Black or African Americans, at 89 per 10,000 residents. This rate was followed by 26 per 10,000 for Hispanic residents, 25 per 10,000 for Native American residents, 17 per 10,000 for White residents, and 10 per 10,000 for Asian residents. Incarceration rates for African American and Hispanic residents was highest in Columbia (at 177 for Black residents, and 69 for Hispanic residents). Ulster count had the highest rate for Native American (60) and White residents (23), and Orange had the highest rate for Asian residents (16). Rates were lowest for Black, White, and Asian residents in Greene (37, 10 and 0 respectively) ) and lowest for Hispanics in Sullivan (17).

All racial and ethnic groups in the region, except for Whites, have seen a decrease in incarceration rate from 2000 to 2018. The rate amongst African American residents decreased 21% in that time, while the rate for White residents increased by nearly 55%.

Why do these dispartities exist?

Scholars have tied numerous factors to disparities in incarceration, including racialized stereotypes, policies and practices and community conditions. Stereotypes that portray Black and Latino people, especially males, as inherently dangerous, criminal, and violent lay the foundation for police surveillance and disparate and harsher treatment by the criminal justice system. Communities of color are more likely to be under surveillance and policies such as stop and frisk perpetuate increased police contact. Punitive drug laws have had disproportionate impact on Black and Latino communities. Even though Blacks and whites have similar rates of drug use, Black people are more likely to be arrested and experience harsher sentences. In general, whites experience less harsh sentenced when convicted of similar crimes as Black and Latinos. Given economic disparities, people of color are less likely to experience pre-trial release after arrest. The concentration of Black and Latino communities in highly segregated communities with limited economic opportunities and ineffective schools may also foster crime involvement.

Notes about the data

National data for subgroups is not available.

Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2018
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatinoNative AmericanWhite
Region10.288.625.524.617.0
Columbia11.5176.669.30.021.6
Dutchess3.758.719.50.012.5
Greene0.036.923.50.010.2
Orange16.091.129.424.218.2
Putnam10.888.820.20.011.7
Sullivan9.5110.717.238.422.1
Ulster13.7139.825.260.023.2
NYS (excluding NYC)5.185.617.952.614.5

Source: Vera Institute of Justice
Notes: Rates are per 10,000 residents




Number of Incarcerated People by Race/Ethnicity, 2018
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatinoNative AmericanWhite
Region246562935905
Columbia13913070
Dutchess3138500175
Greene095026
Orange132731572284
Putnam22022060
Sullivan15314175
Ulster4124322215
NYS (excluding NYC)1816,1681,5661557,651

Source: Vera Institute of Justice
Notes: Figures are for the total jail population. The total jail population is the average daily population.




Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatinoNative AmericanWhite
Region16.2111.630.431.310.6
Columbia74.8260.877.10.018.7
Dutchess1.365.815.617.56.5
Greene0.035.519.60.014.4
Orange2.5139.632.214.19.3
Putnam0.0199.835.00.07.6
Sullivan16.0101.374.375.017.1
Ulster89.4131.915.584.914.1
NYS (excluding NYC)6.3108.731.534.411.8

Source: Vera Institute of Justice
Notes: Rates are per 10,000 residents




Number of Incarcerated People by Race/Ethnicity, 2000
AsianBlack or African AmericanLatinoNative AmericanWhite
Region225981786624
Columbia3538069
Dutchess112120198
Greene083039
Orange1253851162
Putnam02315045
Sullivan14435166
Ulster1696123145
NYS (excluding NYC)1296,4461,538956,899

Source: Vera Institute of Justice
Notes: Figures are for the total jail population. The total jail population is the average daily population.




INDICATORS TREND | STATE
Children Living in Poverty Increasing
Children Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families Increasing
Single-Parent Families, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Rate of Child Abuse and Neglect Decreasing
Rate of Foster Care Admissions Decreasing
Teen Pregnancy Decreasing
Voter Registration Rate Increasing
Voter Participation Rate Decreasing
Total Population Increasing
Population by Age Not Applicable
Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Household Types Not Applicable
Change in Total Jobs Increasing
Foreign-Born Population Increasing
Employment by Sector Not Applicable
Spending for County Government Increasing
Tourism Revenue Increasing
Preschoolers Receiving Special Education Services Increasing
Prekindergarten Participation Increasing
Students Receiving Special Education Services Increasing
Per-Student Spending Increasing
Student Performance on Grade 4 English, by Economic Background Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 4 English, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 4 Math, by Economic Background Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 4 Math, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate Increasing
High School Cohort Dropout Rate Decreasing
High School GED Rate Maintaining
Education Levels of Adults Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income Increasing
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty Maintaining
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Seniors Living in Poverty Increasing
Veterans Living in Poverty Maintaining
Children Receiving Subsidized Child Care Decreasing
Students Eligible for Free/Reduced Price Lunch Increasing
Earned Income Tax Credit Participation Increasing
People Without Health Insurance Decreasing
Deaths from Drug Overdoses Increasing
Early Prenatal Care, by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Living Wage Rate by Household Type Not Applicable
Income in Relation to Poverty Level Not Applicable
Babies with Low Birth Weights Maintaining
Households Receiving SNAP Maintaining
Food Insecurity Decreasing
People Living wth HIV Increasing
Mental Health Clinic Visits Increasing
Homeownership Rates Maintaining
Newly Diagnosed Cases of HIV Decreasing
Homeless Persons Decreasing
Cost of Homeownership Maintaining
Cost of Renting Increasing
Violent Crimes Decreasing
Homeownership Rates, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Domestic Violence Decreasing
Cost of Rent, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Arrest Rates, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Incarceration Rates, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable


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