Population measures provide insight on the changing size and face of communities, and an area's needs and assets.

The total population of the Mid–Hudson Valley Region is growing. Counter to the population declines experienced in Western and Central New York, most of the seven counties in the Mid-Hudson Valley region have gained residents since 2000. From 2000 to 2020, the region gained 7.9% more residents, higher than the state (3.9%), yet below the rate for the nation (18%). Orange led the region with its robust 18% growth, followed by Dutchess (5.7%), Putnam (2.0%), Sullivan (6.4%), and Ulster (2.3%) while Columbia and Greene decreased 2.4% and 0.2% respectively.

The population over the age of 60 has been growing the fastest, while the population under 40 has been shrinking.  All counties in the region are experiencing the “graying” phenomenon affecting much of the country. Since 2000, the 85 and over age group grew the fastest, at 82% for Dutchess and 57% for the region overall. The under 20 group shrank 13% throughout the region. Columbia and Greene had the largest declines in population under age 20 (down 32% and 30% respectively), while Orange lost the least (0.1%). The 20 to 39 age group also shrank 4% throughout the region, or by 11% in Putnam and 10% in Columbia.

While the counties are gradually becoming more diverse in terms of race and ethnicity, they remain overwhelmingly white. Despite the large percentage increases in minority populations and a modest decline in the white population (5%), the region remains predominantly white, representing 75% of total residents. Hispanics were the region’s fastest growing racial group, up 99% from 2000. Putnam had the greatest increase in Hispanic population, at 157%, followed by Dutchess with 108%. The Asian population was the second fastest growing group in the region, growing by 70%.

Regionally, married couples without children were the most common household type, similar to state and national trends. In 2016-20, 30% of households were made up of married couples without children and 21% were married couples with children. Among the counties, Greene had the largest share of households composed of people living alone at 32%, and Orange had 26% of households made up of married couples with children.

The foreign-born share of the population in the region has increased since 2000 to 11%. Putnam County had the largest share of foreign-born population (14%) followed by Dutchess and Orange (both at 12%), while Greene has the smallest share (6%) in 2016-20.

Children Living in Poverty Increasing
Children Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families Increasing
Single-Parent Families, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Rate of Child Abuse and Neglect Decreasing
Rate of Foster Care Admissions Decreasing
Teen Pregnancy Decreasing
Live Births to Teen Mothers Decreasing
Juvenile Delinquency Intakes Decreasing
Bullying at School Decreasing
Average Charitable Giving Increasing
Voter Registration Rate Increasing
Voter Participation Rate Increasing
Total Population Increasing
Population by Age Not Applicable
Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Household Types Not Applicable
Change in Total Jobs Decreasing
Foreign-Born Population Increasing
Employment by Sector Not Applicable
Spending for County Government Increasing
Tourism Revenue Decreasing
Preschoolers Receiving Special Education Services Increasing
Prekindergarten Participation Increasing
Students Receiving Special Education Services Decreasing
Per-Student Spending Increasing
Student Performance on Grade 4 English, by Student Group Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 4 English, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 4 Math, by Student Group Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 4 Math, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate Increasing
High School Cohort Dropout Rate Decreasing
High School GED Rate Maintaining
Plans of High School Graduates Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income Maintaining
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty Increasing
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Seniors Living in Poverty Maintaining
Children Receiving Subsidized Child Care Maintaining
Veterans Living in Poverty Decreasing
Economically Disadvantaged Students Increasing
Earned Income Tax Credit Participation Decreasing
Living Wage Rate by Household Type Not Applicable
Income in Relation to Poverty Level Not Applicable
People Without Health Insurance Decreasing
Early Prenatal Care, by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Domestic Violence Decreasing
Deaths from Drug Overdoses Increasing
Babies with Low Birth Weights Maintaining
People Living wth HIV Increasing
Mental Health Clinic Visits Decreasing
Homeownership Rates Maintaining
Homeless Persons Decreasing
Housing Affordability for Homeowners Maintaining
Housing Affordability for Renters Not Applicable
Violent Crimes Decreasing