Population measures provide insight on the changing size and face of communities, and an area's needs and assets.

The total population of the Mid–Hudson Valley Region is growing. Counter to the population declines experienced in Western and Central New York, most of the seven counties in the Mid-Hudson Valley region have gained residents since 2000. From 2000 to 2021, the region gained 8.6% more residents, higher than the state (3.7%), yet below the rate for the nation (18%). Orange led the region with its robust 19% growth, followed by Dutchess (6%), Putnam (2.3%), Sullivan (8%), and Ulster (2.9%), and Greene (1%) while Columbia decreased 2.1%.

The population over the age of 60 has been growing the fastest, while the population under 40 has been shrinking.  All counties in the region are experiencing the “graying” phenomenon affecting much of the country. Since 2000, the 85 and over age group grew the fastest, at 79% for Greene and 51% for the region overall. The under 20 group shrank 11% throughout the region. Columbia and Greene had the largest declines in population under age 20 (down 31% and 30%, respectively), while Orange increased (5%). The 20 to 39 age group also shrank 2% throughout the region, or by 13% in Putnam and 8% in Columbia.

While the counties are gradually becoming more diverse in terms of race and ethnicity, they remain overwhelmingly white. Despite the large percentage increases in minority populations and a modest decline in the white population (5%), the region remains predominantly white, representing 74% of total residents. Hispanics were the region’s fastest growing racial group, up 109% from 2000. Putnam had the greatest increase in Hispanic population, at 165%, followed by Orange with 115%. The Asian population was the second fastest growing group in the region, growing by 73%.

Regionally, married couples without children were the most common household type, similar to state and national trends. In 2017-21, 30% of households were made up of married couples without children and 21% were married couples with children. Among the counties, Putnam had the largest share of households composed of people living alone, at 35%, and Orange and Putnam had 26% of households made up of married couples with children.

The foreign-born share of the population in the region has increased since 2000 to 10%. Putnam County had the largest share of foreign-born population (14%) followed by Orange, at 12%, while Greene has the smallest share (6%) in 2017-21.