Foreign-Born Population

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Foreign-Born Population

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What does this measure?

The percentage of the population in a region that is foreign-born, which includes anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. People who become U.S. citizens through naturalization are considered foreign-born.

Why is this important?

Foreign-born Americans and their descendants have historically been a main driver of population growth, and that role will only increase in the future. According to the Pew Research Center, new immigrants and their children and grandchildren accounted for 55% of the U.S. population increase from 1965 to 2015, from 193 million to 324 million. Pew projects the population will grow to 441 million in 2065, and 88% of the increase is linked to future immigrants and their descendants. This measure also is a reflection of the composition of a community, which can offer insight into its levels of diversity.

How is the region performing?

The foreign-born share of the population in the Mid-Hudson Valley increased slightly from 2000 to 2017-21, from 8% to 10%. The percentage in 2017-21 was slightly lower than New York State excluding New York City (12%) and the U.S. (14%). The state and nation also had slight increases in foreign-born population since 2000.

Among the region's counties, foreign-born residents represented the largest share of the overall population in 2017-21 in Putnam County, at 14%, followed by Orange, at 12%. Greene had the smallest share, at 6%. In raw numbers, Orange had the largest foreign-born population (about 46,600 residents), followed by Dutchess (about 33,600 residents). The two smallest were Greene, with only about 2,700 foreign-born residents, and Columbia, at 4,100.

Among the region's larger communities, Newburgh (Orange County) had one of the biggest percentages of foreign-born residents, at 23%. Poughkeepsie (Dutchess County), at 17%, also was quite a bit higher than the region as a whole.

Notes about the data

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined 5 years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are released annually in December.

Foreign-Born Population
NYS (excluding NYC)9%11%12%12%
Columbia Cities
Hudson city, Columbia County11%12%*16%*17%*
Columbia Towns
Ancram town, Columbia County4%7%**7%***6%**
Austerlitz town, Columbia County4%6%**5%**5%**
Canaan town, Columbia County2%2%***3%***5%**
Chatham town, Columbia County3%6%**5%***6%**
Claverack town, Columbia County3%5%**4%**4%***
Clermont town, Columbia County4%6%***6%**7%**
Copake town, Columbia County4%4%***7%***4%***
Gallatin town, Columbia County4%5%*6%**6%**
Germantown town, Columbia County5%3%***7%*6%***
Ghent town, Columbia County3%4%**8%***6%***
Greenport town, Columbia County3%4%**7%**8%**
Hillsdale town, Columbia County7%11%***7%**6%**
Kinderhook town, Columbia County2%3%**4%**4%*
Livingston town, Columbia County5%8%***5%**9%**
New Lebanon town, Columbia County4%8%**6%***5%***
Stockport town, Columbia County3%4%***3%***9%***
Stuyvesant town, Columbia County3%2%***6%***3%***
Taghkanic town, Columbia County7%5%**5%**8%**
Columbia Villages
Chatham village, Columbia County4%4%***4%***3%***
Kinderhook village, Columbia County4%7%***5%***7%***
Philmont village, Columbia County2%3%***6%***1%***
Valatie village, Columbia County3%4%***4%***5%***
Dutchess Cities
Beacon city, Dutchess County8%10%*13%*11%*
Poughkeepsie city, Dutchess County14%22%19%17%
Dutchess Towns
Amenia town, Dutchess County5%9%**4%***11%**
Beekman town, Dutchess County5%9%*10%9%*
Clinton town, Dutchess County4%6%**5%**6%***
Dover town, Dutchess County6%9%*10%*12%*
East Fishkill town, Dutchess County7%12%10%10%
Fishkill town, Dutchess County10%14%12%11%
Hyde Park town, Dutchess County5%6%*7%7%*
La Grange town, Dutchess County7%8%*8%11%*
Milan town, Dutchess County11%5%***13%***8%**
North East town, Dutchess County5%9%***14%**9%**
Pawling town, Dutchess County7%9%*10%*8%*
Pine Plains town, Dutchess County6%3%***6%***5%***
Pleasant Valley town, Dutchess County4%5%*8%*7%*
Poughkeepsie town, Dutchess County11%12%13%16%
Red Hook town, Dutchess County6%9%*8%*8%
Rhinebeck town, Dutchess County6%5%*12%*7%*
Stanford town, Dutchess County5%9%***5%***9%**
Union Vale town, Dutchess County6%10%**8%*12%*
Wappinger town, Dutchess County10%14%13%10%
Washington town, Dutchess County7%7%**9%**6%**
Dutchess Villages
Fishkill village, Dutchess County9%21%**14%*9%***
Millbrook village, Dutchess County7%10%**6%***8%***
Millerton village, Dutchess County5%16%***16%***16%***
Pawling village, Dutchess County8%9%***13%*15%**
Red Hook village, Dutchess County6%12%***11%**11%**
Rhinebeck village, Dutchess County4%4%***16%*9%***
Tivoli village, Dutchess County3%5%***6%***7%***
Wappingers Falls village, Dutchess County17%21%*26%*15%**
Greene Towns
Ashland town, Greene County5%11%***9%***2%***
Athens town, Greene County6%6%**3%***13%**
Cairo town, Greene County7%4%**7%***4%***
Catskill town, Greene County5%5%**5%**5%**
Coxsackie town, Greene County7%3%**7%*5%*
Durham town, Greene County10%10%*6%**4%***
Greenville town, Greene County8%4%***5%**4%***
Halcott town, Greene County10%4%***12%***9%***
Hunter town, Greene County6%13%*11%***8%***
Jewett town, Greene County11%8%***13%***8%***
Lexington town, Greene County9%5%***5%***7%***
New Baltimore town, Greene County3%1%***3%***2%***
Prattsville town, Greene County6%10%***9%***4%***
Windham town, Greene County9%4%***6%***12%***
Greene Villages
Athens village, Greene County3%4%***3%***12%***
Catskill village, Greene County4%3%***4%***7%***
Coxsackie village, Greene County3%3%***6%***5%***
Hunter village, Greene County11%5%***17%***24%***
Tannersville village, Greene County8%2%***0%***6%***
Orange Cities
Middletown city, Orange County14%21%18%17%
Newburgh city, Orange County20%26%24%23%
Port Jervis city, Orange County3%5%**7%**9%**
Orange Towns
Blooming Grove town, Orange County6%6%*8%9%*
Chester town, Orange County7%10%*13%*6%**
Cornwall town, Orange County6%6%*5%*5%*
Crawford town, Orange County5%5%***5%*6%*
Deerpark town, Orange County3%4%**2%**6%**
Goshen town, Orange County8%12%*7%*11%
Greenville town, Orange County5%8%**6%**8%**
Hamptonburgh town, Orange County5%6%**13%**8%***
Highlands town, Orange County6%6%*7%*11%*
Minisink town, Orange County3%3%***5%***6%***
Monroe town, Orange County10%11%11%15%
Montgomery town, Orange County5%6%*7%*8%*
Mount Hope town, Orange County7%10%*8%*11%**
New Windsor town, Orange County8%11%12%15%
Newburgh town, Orange County8%8%10%11%
Tuxedo town, Orange County10%8%*10%*13%**
Wallkill town, Orange County9%13%13%15%
Warwick town, Orange County5%9%*6%8%
Wawayanda town, Orange County7%7%**8%*6%*
Woodbury town, Orange County6%14%*18%*18%*
Orange Villages
Chester village, Orange County6%18%**18%*6%***
Cornwall-on-Hudson village, Orange County5%3%***3%***5%**
Florida village, Orange County4%10%**9%*11%**
Goshen village, Orange County8%11%*6%**13%*
Greenwood Lake village, Orange County6%9%**3%***16%**
Harriman village, Orange County12%20%*21%*26%**
Highland Falls village, Orange County9%10%**13%*20%*
Kiryas Joel village, Orange County9%7%6%7%*
Maybrook village, Orange County6%12%**12%*9%**
Monroe village, Orange County10%10%*17%*18%
Montgomery village, Orange County7%3%***4%***4%**
Otisville village, Orange County2%4%***5%***15%***
South Blooming Grove village, Orange County8%***13%*7%**
Tuxedo Park village, Orange County15%9%***7%***13%**
Unionville village, Orange County2%2%***9%***1%***
Walden village, Orange County5%7%**5%**13%***
Warwick village, Orange County6%6%**4%***11%*
Washingtonville village, Orange County7%7%**9%*9%*
Woodbury village, Orange County13%*17%*14%*
Putnam Towns
Carmel town, Putnam County10%11%13%11%
Kent town, Putnam County6%9%12%17%
Patterson town, Putnam County5%9%*12%*14%*
Philipstown town, Putnam County9%10%*8%8%*
Putnam Valley town, Putnam County9%13%*12%*13%*
Southeast town, Putnam County10%14%16%20%
Putnam Villages
Brewster village, Putnam County32%41%*52%*44%
Cold Spring village, Putnam County8%5%***8%*7%**
Nelsonville village, Putnam County7%15%***8%**10%**
Sullivan Towns
Bethel town, Sullivan County9%7%**9%**6%**
Callicoon town, Sullivan County6%4%***5%***4%***
Cochecton town, Sullivan County5%5%***3%***8%**
Delaware town, Sullivan County9%8%**10%*7%***
Fallsburg town, Sullivan County10%17%13%*11%*
Forestburgh town, Sullivan County6%6%***10%**9%**
Fremont town, Sullivan County3%3%***3%***5%***
Highland town, Sullivan County9%8%***11%*15%***
Liberty town, Sullivan County8%10%*13%*17%*
Lumberland town, Sullivan County15%9%**12%*6%**
Mamakating town, Sullivan County5%6%*5%*6%**
Neversink town, Sullivan County6%3%***4%***8%***
Rockland town, Sullivan County5%6%***4%***5%***
Thompson town, Sullivan County10%13%13%12%*
Tusten town, Sullivan County4%5%**6%**6%**
Sullivan Villages
Bloomingburg village, Sullivan County1%5%***8%***1%***
Jeffersonville village, Sullivan County5%13%***15%***3%***
Liberty village, Sullivan County10%11%**16%**24%**
Monticello village, Sullivan County14%18%*16%*14%**
Woodridge village, Sullivan County11%18%**12%**9%***
Wurtsboro village, Sullivan County4%1%***4%***6%***
Ulster Cities
Kingston city, Ulster County5%11%12%11%*
Ulster Towns
Denning town, Ulster County2%1%***4%***13%***
Esopus town, Ulster County5%4%**5%**10%**
Gardiner town, Ulster County6%5%**7%***7%**
Hardenburgh town, Ulster County5%1%***1%***4%***
Hurley town, Ulster County5%4%**5%**4%**
Kingston town, Ulster County1%1%***3%***4%***
Lloyd town, Ulster County6%6%*6%*8%*
Marbletown town, Ulster County3%5%**4%***11%**
Marlborough town, Ulster County6%7%*5%**4%**
New Paltz town, Ulster County11%9%*10%7%*
Olive town, Ulster County7%3%**8%**5%***
Plattekill town, Ulster County5%9%*8%*5%*
Rochester town, Ulster County6%6%**4%**12%**
Rosendale town, Ulster County4%2%***4%**11%***
Saugerties town, Ulster County4%5%**7%*5%*
Shandaken town, Ulster County12%9%***12%**6%***
Shawangunk town, Ulster County4%5%**5%**5%**
Ulster town, Ulster County4%6%*9%*6%
Wawarsing town, Ulster County10%12%*10%7%*
Woodstock town, Ulster County7%8%*9%*7%*
Ulster Villages
Ellenville village, Ulster County11%13%**9%**8%***
New Paltz village, Ulster County15%10%*12%*9%*
Saugerties village, Ulster County6%5%***7%***6%***

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.

Number of Foreign-Born People
NYS (excluding NYC)997,1011,225,2231,296,1351,354,441
Columbia Cities
Hudson city, Columbia County792804*1,051*1,027*
Columbia Towns
Ancram town, Columbia County63104**103***83**
Austerlitz town, Columbia County6489**81**79**
Canaan town, Columbia County4237***44***81**
Chatham town, Columbia County140241**210***248**
Claverack town, Columbia County216298**222**247***
Clermont town, Columbia County71114***128**140**
Copake town, Columbia County130152***261***132***
Gallatin town, Columbia County55108*103**90**
Germantown town, Columbia County10160***132*95***
Ghent town, Columbia County169193**406***297***
Greenport town, Columbia County125178**284**332**
Hillsdale town, Columbia County116208***118**92**
Kinderhook town, Columbia County202271**368**345*
Livingston town, Columbia County164272***166**333**
New Lebanon town, Columbia County104199**150***112***
Stockport town, Columbia County88114***95***229***
Stuyvesant town, Columbia County6142***134***66***
Taghkanic town, Columbia County7654**61**98**
Columbia Villages
Chatham village, Columbia County6469***56***47***
Kinderhook village, Columbia County4694***70***101***
Philmont village, Columbia County3540***81***16***
Valatie village, Columbia County4571***61***82***
Dutchess Cities
Beacon city, Dutchess County1,1741,519*1,806*1,467*
Poughkeepsie city, Dutchess County4,1387,2655,8445,286
Dutchess Towns
Amenia town, Dutchess County205418**178***418**
Beekman town, Dutchess County5321,333*1,3981,222*
Clinton town, Dutchess County173261**226**239***
Dover town, Dutchess County489789*854*1,045*
East Fishkill town, Dutchess County1,8213,3252,9113,064
Fishkill town, Dutchess County2,0722,9722,8532,678
Hyde Park town, Dutchess County1,0191,307*1,5091,556*
La Grange town, Dutchess County1,1151,208*1,3241,732*
Milan town, Dutchess County490114***291***199**
North East town, Dutchess County142283***419**276**
Pawling town, Dutchess County559757*845*679*
Pine Plains town, Dutchess County14980***146***103***
Pleasant Valley town, Dutchess County357511*809*696*
Poughkeepsie town, Dutchess County4,5245,3305,9187,101
Red Hook town, Dutchess County662977*877*811
Rhinebeck town, Dutchess County486387*887*510*
Stanford town, Dutchess County176344***200***349**
Union Vale town, Dutchess County264487**408*569*
Wappinger town, Dutchess County2,7343,8933,4542,891
Washington town, Dutchess County319346**443**279**
Dutchess Villages
Fishkill village, Dutchess County155494**290*170***
Millbrook village, Dutchess County93156**93***115***
Millerton village, Dutchess County43129***132***140***
Pawling village, Dutchess County178224***274*308**
Red Hook village, Dutchess County118220***192**213**
Rhinebeck village, Dutchess County127105***420*238***
Tivoli village, Dutchess County3952***71***56***
Wappingers Falls village, Dutchess County8241,131*1,400*885**
Greene Towns
Ashland town, Greene County3567***72***13***
Athens town, Greene County225239**130***525**
Cairo town, Greene County475257**446***255***
Catskill town, Greene County544576**560**566**
Coxsackie town, Greene County606301**590*447*
Durham town, Greene County266273*158**109***
Greenville town, Greene County253163***171**149***
Halcott town, Greene County2111***29***40***
Hunter town, Greene County170344*305***232***
Jewett town, Greene County10775***97***81***
Lexington town, Greene County7354***47***41***
New Baltimore town, Greene County10126***92***59***
Prattsville town, Greene County3772***63***30***
Windham town, Greene County15165***107***189***
Greene Villages
Athens village, Greene County4770***48***211***
Catskill village, Greene County194126***141***257***
Coxsackie village, Greene County9284***169***149***
Hunter village, Greene County5124***60***86***
Tannersville village, Greene County368***3***36***
Orange Cities
Middletown city, Orange County3,4235,8264,8925,021
Newburgh city, Orange County5,7427,5316,7806,666
Port Jervis city, Orange County268405**617**826**
Orange Towns
Blooming Grove town, Orange County1,1121,111*1,4331,721*
Chester town, Orange County8461,183*1,555*698**
Cornwall town, Orange County711699*613*667*
Crawford town, Orange County401417***480*522*
Deerpark town, Orange County234355**184**431**
Goshen town, Orange County1,0231,626*1,023*1,567
Greenville town, Orange County189356**263**365**
Hamptonburgh town, Orange County233332**690**466***
Highlands town, Orange County697767*870*1,338*
Minisink town, Orange County111120***222***258***
Monroe town, Orange County3,0294,3714,5053,267
Montgomery town, Orange County1,0721,391*1,581*1,773*
Mount Hope town, Orange County495717*534*706**
New Windsor town, Orange County1,8562,7803,0764,099
Newburgh town, Orange County2,0942,3152,9383,552
Tuxedo town, Orange County335299*363*498**
Wallkill town, Orange County2,1993,5783,5694,508
Warwick town, Orange County1,6663,031*1,8802,685
Wawayanda town, Orange County449495**613*445*
Woodbury town, Orange County5251,618*2,032*2,162*
Orange Villages
Chester village, Orange County228721**712*265***
Cornwall-on-Hudson village, Orange County140104***96***149**
Florida village, Orange County107275**254*311**
Goshen village, Orange County433626*344**753*
Greenwood Lake village, Orange County185278**92***493**
Harriman village, Orange County276497*534*824**
Highland Falls village, Orange County315391**490*755*
Kiryas Joel village, Orange County1,1721,4401,3962,393*
Maybrook village, Orange County187357**385*277**
Monroe village, Orange County800863*1,444*1,705
Montgomery village, Orange County244102***175***159**
Otisville village, Orange County2344***51***233***
South Blooming Grove village, Orange County273***427*277**
Tuxedo Park village, Orange County11351***43***86**
Unionville village, Orange County99***53***10***
Walden village, Orange County278469**347**901***
Warwick village, Orange County367403**263***716*
Washingtonville village, Orange County404420**530*508*
Woodbury village, Orange County1,422*1,909*1,604*
Putnam Towns
Carmel town, Putnam County3,3173,6754,3383,870
Kent town, Putnam County8821,2601,5842,205
Patterson town, Putnam County6191,112*1,495*1,664*
Philipstown town, Putnam County856963*815751*
Putnam Valley town, Putnam County9501,500*1,398*1,533*
Southeast town, Putnam County1,7962,5802,9253,554
Putnam Villages
Brewster village, Putnam County697911*1,196*1,091
Cold Spring village, Putnam County15983***148*135**
Nelsonville village, Putnam County41109***58**67**
Sullivan Towns
Bethel town, Sullivan County370318**362**224**
Callicoon town, Sullivan County180123***157***133***
Cochecton town, Sullivan County6367***42***110**
Delaware town, Sullivan County232226**255*154***
Fallsburg town, Sullivan County1,2012,2271,722*1,531*
Forestburgh town, Sullivan County4849***96**80**
Fremont town, Sullivan County4637***45***58***
Highland town, Sullivan County206206***249*318***
Liberty town, Sullivan County786950*1,209*1,691*
Lumberland town, Sullivan County295225**303*140**
Mamakating town, Sullivan County593740*633*819**
Neversink town, Sullivan County213123***143***265***
Rockland town, Sullivan County190212***157***177***
Thompson town, Sullivan County1,3971,9321,9071,905*
Tusten town, Sullivan County5569**76**94**
Sullivan Villages
Bloomingburg village, Sullivan County320***35***4***
Jeffersonville village, Sullivan County2243***45***14***
Liberty village, Sullivan County395490**670**1,178**
Monticello village, Sullivan County9001,223*1,038*1,011**
Woodridge village, Sullivan County102142**119**66***
Wurtsboro village, Sullivan County4816***46***78***
Ulster Cities
Kingston city, Ulster County1,2002,7292,7852,575*
Ulster Towns
Denning town, Ulster County99***23***56***
Esopus town, Ulster County432370**460**914**
Gardiner town, Ulster County328278**388***417**
Hardenburgh town, Ulster County122***2***4***
Hurley town, Ulster County305260**331**232**
Kingston town, Ulster County1010***26***37***
Lloyd town, Ulster County579700*652*887*
Marbletown town, Ulster County169277**246***634**
Marlborough town, Ulster County517623*468**342**
New Paltz town, Ulster County1,4311,193*1,3551,034*
Olive town, Ulster County335154**367**210***
Plattekill town, Ulster County516977*807*547*
Rochester town, Ulster County410436**281**838**
Rosendale town, Ulster County233145***230**626***
Saugerties town, Ulster County808996**1,360*982*
Shandaken town, Ulster County384260***350**180***
Shawangunk town, Ulster County528740**728**666**
Ulster town, Ulster County542747*1,062*789
Wawarsing town, Ulster County1,2771,614*1,251936*
Woodstock town, Ulster County443448*558*429*
Ulster Villages
Ellenville village, Ulster County462528**349**351***
New Paltz village, Ulster County935687*875*628*
Saugerties village, Ulster County284187***271***223***

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.

Children Living in Poverty Increasing
Children Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families Increasing
Single-Parent Families, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Rate of Child Abuse and Neglect Decreasing
Rate of Foster Care Admissions Decreasing
Teen Pregnancy Decreasing
Live Births to Teen Mothers Decreasing
Juvenile Delinquency Intakes Decreasing
Bullying at School Decreasing
Average Charitable Giving Increasing
Voter Registration Rate Increasing
Voter Participation Rate Increasing
Total Population Increasing
Population by Age Not Applicable
Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Household Types Not Applicable
Foreign-Born Population Increasing
Change in Total Jobs Increasing
Employment by Sector Not Applicable
Spending for County Government Increasing
Tourism Revenue Increasing
Preschoolers Receiving Special Education Services Increasing
Prekindergarten Participation Decreasing
Students Receiving Special Education Services Increasing
Per-Student Spending Increasing
Student Performance on Grade 4 English, by Economic Background Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 4 English, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 4 Math, by Economic Background Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 4 Math, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate Increasing
High School Cohort Dropout Rate Decreasing
High School GED Rate Decreasing
Plans of High School Graduates Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income Maintaining
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty Increasing
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Seniors Living in Poverty Maintaining
Veterans Living in Poverty Decreasing
Children Receiving Subsidized Child Care Decreasing
Students Eligible for Free/Reduced Price Lunch Increasing
Earned Income Tax Credit Participation Decreasing
People Without Health Insurance Decreasing
Deaths from Drug Overdoses Increasing
Living Wage Rate by Household Type Not Applicable
Early Prenatal Care, by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Income in Relation to Poverty Level Not Applicable
Babies with Low Birth Weights Increasing
People Living wth HIV Increasing
Mental Health Clinic Visits Decreasing
Homeownership Rates Increasing
Homeless Persons Decreasing
Cost of Homeownership Maintaining
Cost of Renting Not Applicable
Violent Crimes Decreasing
Domestic Violence Decreasing